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680 Battle of Ongal ★ ★ ★ ★ ★
Outcome: A Byzantine defeat which allowed Bulgarians to relocate south of Danube 680
War  &  Enemy: Enemy:
Early Bulgarian Wars
Battle Type:
Pitched Battle
The Battlefield Ongal Location:
In the Danube delta near the Peuce Island.
Modern Country:
  The Byzantines(emperor:  Constantine IV) The Enemies
Commander: Emperor Constantine IV Khan Asparukh
Forces: 25,000 10,000
Losses: Heavy Minimal
Background story: In 632, Khan Kubrat managed to unite the Bulgars into a Bulgarian state between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. After his death, in 660s, the state was divided. One of his three sons, Asparukh marched westward and settled with his folk in the Ongal area to the north of the Danube . From there he launched attacks against the Byzantine fortresses to the south. During that time Byzantium was at war with the Arabs who even besieged the capital Constantinople.
After his success against the Arabs, Emperor Constantine IV decided to punish the Bulgars and led an army against Asparukh. In the meantime the Bulgarian leader made an alliance with the Seven Slavic tribes for mutual protection against Byzantine attacks and formed a federation.
The Battle:
Asparouh crosses Danube
The Bulgars had built wooden ramparts in the swampy area near the Peuce Island. The marshes forced the Byzantines to attack from different places and in smaller groups which reduced the strength of their attack. With sudden strikes from the ramparts, the well-organized defense eventually forced the Byzantines to retreat, and the retreat developed into a stampede. The Bulgar cavalry came out and charged the enemy who retreated chaotically. Most of the Byzantine soldiers were killed.
This was the first worth-mentioning battle between the Bulgarians and the Byzantines. The following centuries a lot more would follow.
Aftermath: The immediate result of the battle was that the Bulgars made a historic crossing of the Danube river and advanced south to what is today north Bulgaria. Constantine IV was unable to stop them and asked for piece. The Bulgarians had found their homeland.