|1328-1331||Siege of Nicaea||★ ★ ★ ★ ★|
|Outcome:||Capture of the city of Nicaea by the Ottoman Turks after a 4-years siege||1328-1331|
|War & Enemy:||
|The Battlefield|| Location:
Nicaea (modern Iznik), on the eastern shore of Lake Iznik
| Modern Country:
|The Byzantines(emperor: Andronikos III Palaiologos)||The Enemies|
|Commander:||Unknown||Sultan Orhan I|
|Background story:||By 1326, lands around Nicaea had fallen into the hands of Osman I. He had also captured the city of Bursa, establishing a capital dangerously close to the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. In 1328, Orkhan, Osman's son, began the siege of Nicaea, which had been in a state of intermittent blockade since 1301. The Ottomans lacked the experience and the ability to control access to the town through the lakeside harbor. As a result, the siege dragged on for several years without conclusion.
In 1329, emperor Andronicos III attempted to break the siege. He led a relief force to drive the Ottomans away from both Nicomedia and Nicaea. After some minor successes, however, the force suffered a defeat at Pelekanon and withdrew.
That was the last presence of the Byzantine army in Asia Minor.
When it was clear that no effective Imperial force would be able to restore the frontier and drive off the Ottomans, the city fell in 1331.
|Aftermath:||The fall of Nicaea had a serious impact on the morale and the prestige of the Byzantines. The city was the capital in the period of the Latin Empire, a symbol of Christianity and the most important Asian city in the Empire.|